The main keys to the new Strategic Concept agreed at the NATO summit


The new NATO roadmap identifies Russia as the “most immediate and significant threat to Euro-Atlantic security, peace and stability”.

The NATO agreed this Wednesday on a new Strategic Concept, a document that is updated about once every decade. The text captures the alliance’s focus areas and provides guidelines which are then translated into: political and military actions

The document agreed today collects in 16 pages and a total of 49 points the position of the organization in the current context, the challenges and the role it has to play. Here we collect the most important points and aspects:

basic principles

NATO reaffirms its defensive character and is committed to safeguarding the freedom and security of Allies with the primary objective of “ensuring collective defense, against any threat, from all directions. Our deterrent and defense capabilities form the backbone of those Commitment It underlines its commitment to common values, such as individual freedom, human rights, democracy and the rule of law.

Russia, the great enemy

The document quotes Russia 14 times as accusing it of seeking to “establish spheres of influence and direct control through coercion, subversion, aggression and annexation”. NATO says Moscow is using conventional military, cyber and hybrid means to achieve these goals. “Moscow’s military build-up, including in the Baltic, Black and Mediterranean regions, together with its military integration with Belarus, pose a challenge to our security and interests,” says the strategic draft.
In response to the actions of Russia (which accuses NATO of threatening European security by expanding eastwards since the mid-1990s), NATO will significantly strengthen its deterrence and defenses, the document says, while emphasizes that the alliance does not seek confrontation with Moscow, but dialogue: “We remain ready to keep the channels of communication with Moscow open in order to manage and mitigate risks, prevent escalation and increase transparency,” according to the strategic draft.

Nuclear weapons

In the document, NATO expresses concern about the modernization of Russia’s nuclear forces, Moscow’s threats to use nuclear weapons and the development of “new and disruptive double-capability launch systems”, a reference to the development of hypersonic weapons that use both conventional and nuclear weapons. as and nuclear warheads.

The allied countries assume that there is a risk that “hostile” actors, whether state or non-state, will resort to nuclear, chemical, biological or radiological weapons, and allude to the arms race of countries such as Russia, Iran, Syria and North America. Including Korea.

The Strategic Concept states that nuclear weapons, especially those owned by the United States, are “the highest guarantee of the security of the Alliance”, although the circumstances in which this type of weapon would be used are “extremely remote”. in which cases-. NATO’s goal remains “to create a safe environment for a world without nuclear weapons”.

China, the new threat

The Asian country is first mentioned in NATO’s strategic draft and is seen as a security risk, largely because of its good relationship with China and “mutually reinforcing attempts to undermine international order and rules”. Beijing’s “declared ambitions and coercive policies challenge our interests, security and values,” the document said. He accuses China of using malicious hybrid and cyber operations, confrontational rhetoric and disinformation to attack NATO allies and harm NATO security. It also causes China to seek to control key technology and industrial sectors, critical infrastructure and strategic materials and supply chains, in addition to “undermining the rules-based international order, including space, cyber and maritime.”

NATO says it is open to constructive cooperation with China, but will also raise awareness and increase its preparedness against Beijing’s “coercive tactics and efforts to split alliances”.

The Sahel, “source of conflict and instability”

At the request of Spain, the Atlantic Alliance has for the first time included the Sahel region in its Strategic Concept as an area having “direct impact” on the security of NATO and all its allies. It will be seen, along with the Middle East and North Africa, as a source of “conflict, fragility and instability” and a fertile ground for “the proliferation of armed groups, including terrorist organizations”. These regions and their situation, the document adds, “also give rise to destabilizing and coercive interference from strategic competitors.” The political region of the Sahel includes 10 countries: Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria.

Open doors

The text states that NATO enlargement has been “a historic success, as it has ensured the security of millions of European citizens and contributed to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic zone”. So they reaffirm their Open Door policy: “Our door remains open to all European democracies who share the values ​​of our Alliance, who are willing and able to assume the responsibilities and obligations of membership, and whose membership contributes to our common security. Membership decisions are made by NATO allies and no third party has a say in this process.” He affirms that they will continue to develop the memberships of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia and Ukraine.

12 years since last revision

NATO’s last strategic draft was drafted in 2010, when the alliance was engaged in a US-led fight against Taliban militants and a democracy-building mission in Afghanistan. It took four years for Russia to annex Crimea in 2014, returning NATO to its roots of collective defense rather than crisis management beyond its borders.

The concept of 2022 has been a long time coming, as the alliance did not dare to formulate a new strategy while Donald Trump was the US president. Trump was very critical of NATO, so much so that in 2018 he even threatened to leave the alliance.

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Source: EITB


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